Parasitic Gastroenteritis (PGE) ~ Veterinary medicine

Parasitic gastroenteritis in Ruminants

Etiology; The nematode genera Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia (including Teladorsagia, Cooperia & Nematodirus)

Epidemiology;
1. Transmission; by ingestion of infective larvae.
2. Disease risk is determined by;
    a. factors influencing the susceptibility of the host
    b. the numbers of infective larvae accumulating on pasture
    c. and the number of larvae undergoing hypobiosis
3. Calves, goats, lambs are most vulnerable
4. Type;
    a. Type I; follows recent infestation
    b. Type II; delayes until hypobiotic larvae resume development

Signs;
1. Diarrhoea
2. Weight loss
3. Production losses

Clinical Pathology;
1. High fecal egg count (in young animals)
2. Elevated plasma pepsinogen and gastrin concentration (in abomasal infection only)

Lesion;
1. Raised nodules on gastric mucosa and/or
2. inflammation and villous atrophy in anterior small intestine

Diagnostic confirmation
1. Worm counts at necropsy
2. largely reliant on history and clinical signs
3. faecal egg counts and plasma pepsinogen concentration confirmatory in some instances

Differential diagnosis list; Other common cause of emaciation and diarrhoea in groups of young animals
1. malnutrition
2. copper deficiency
3. coccidiosis
4. Johne’s disease
5. Chronic fasciolasis

Treatment;
1. Avermectin /milbemycins
2. Benzimidazole/ probenzimidazole
3. levamisole & morantel

*Not all compounds suitable for controlling hypobiotic larvae

Control;
1. Methods differ widely according to climatic region and management
2. Aim; maintain safe grazing by reducing pasture contamination
3. Integrating management schemes which reduce dependance on drug usage are preferred as anthelmintics resistance is a serious or emerging problems in many areas, particularly sheep and goats.



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