Bovine verminous bronchitis (Lungworm infestation in cattle)

Etiology; The nematode Dictyocaulus viviparus (the bovine lungworm)

Epidemiology;
1. Disease seen mostly in dairy calves
2. immunity develops relatively quickly but cattle will succumb if exposed to overwhelming numbers of inns;fective larvae while grazing
3. Age introduce to pasture 4-5 months

Sign; Coughing, tachypnea, dyspnea

Clinical pathology;
1. Characteristic larvae in faeces (but not present during all stages of disease)
2. eosinophilia
3. ELISA tests for serum antibodies

Differential diagnosis; Bacteria bronchopneumonia, Acute & chronic interstitial pneumonia, viral pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, heavy infestation with ascarid larvae on pasture contaminated with pigs faeces.

Lesions;
1. Large volumes of consolidation in diaphragmatic lobes of lung, emphysema
2. worms up to 8cm long in bronchii (only in patent phase of disease)

Diagnostic confirmation
1. Clinical pathology
2. at necropsy, distribution of lesions in lungs and demonstration of worms in bronchi

Treatment;
1. Benzimidazole and avermectin/milbemycins are active against all parasitic stages of D.viviparus; the latter also have a persistent protective effect
2. levamisole are also used

Control
1. vaccination
2. early season anthelmintic prophylatic program using suitable intraluminal boluses or mltiple doses of avermectin/milbemycins
3. keep susceptible animals off potentially dangerous pasture



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